Wednesday, May 28, 2008


Trece Martires City is a young city. As of May 24, this year (1984), it became 30 years old. It was established on May 24, 1954 under Republic Act No. 981 entitled "The Charter of Trece Martires City," approved by the late President Ramon Magsaysay. It owes its existence to three distinguished Cavitenos; namely, Congressman Jose T. Cajulis (1954-1957), who actually introduced House Bill 1795 which became Republic Act No. 981; Senator Justiniano S. Montano (1949-1956), then Cavite’s political kingpin, whim inspired it; and his son, Governor Delfin M. Montano (1956-1971), under whose long term the city charter was amended twice, making Trece Martires City what it is today

Under the city charter, Governor Montano was the ex-officio city mayor of Trece Martires city for 16 years. He "inherited" it from its first ex-officio city mayor, Ating Governor Dominador Mangubat, when it was barely one year old. When his term expired in 1971, the new city was pretty well in its teens (127), the capitol standing in its solitary grandeur and lording it over a vast area, its territorial limits extending "ten kilometers from its heart in all ditrections of the compass."

Trece Martires City became the provincial capital, it is interesting to note, in three stages. First, under Republic Act No. 981 the new city comprised a territory not exceeding one thousand hectares, located at or near the intersection of the Tanza-Indang Road and the Naik-Dasmarinas Road in the province of Cavite.

Second, in June 223, 1957 the original act was amended by Republic Act 1912 increasing its territory to 3,917 hectares. Consequently, the municipalities of Indang and General Trias has to yield parts of their respective areas to this territorial expansion.

Finally, on April 7, 1959 Republic Act 2130 was approved by the Congress of the Philippines giving Trece Martires City administrative jurisdiction over 100-meter strip of land along and including four national roads radiating from the city of Tanza, Indang, Matanda, and Tres Cruces Dams, thus stretching the territorial limits by ten kilometers all around.

Governor Montano chose to hold his inauguration as Cavite’s provincial governor and ex-officio city mayor of Trece Martirez City on January 1, 1956, coinciding with the inauguration also of the new provincial capitol. This double inuguration served to emphasize the significance of the birth of the third and newest city of Cavite from which radiates the highest political and administrative power and influence in the province. That the city was named after the 13 Caviteno who were executed by the Spaniards shortly after the outbreak of the Philippine Revolution is indicative of the message that the people of the province hope and expect it to carry out – a message of redemption from bondage to freedom, peace and prosperity.

Source: Saulo & de Ocampo - Cavite History


Rosario was origanally a part of a San Francisco de Malabon (now General Trias) and it was called Tejero by the spaniards. The name of Tehero may have originated from the spanish word teger (to weave) becouse sea fishing was the primary industry of the people,and weaving fish net the main occupation of the womenfolk.

Be that as it may,Rosario was also formely called Salinas (derive from the sal or salt)becouse of the salt making was another important industry of the town.The place was likewise foremely was called Marcella or marcelles due to its prximity the sea( mar in Spanish).But during the Philipines Revolution Rosario was called by the former of the name Salinas

Rosario or Salinas become the independent municipality in 1846.However another source say the even took place one year earlier. The creation of the Roasario in to an independent town concided with the pounding of the Rosario parish in 1845. The was name after the patron saint Nuestra Senora del Rosario (our lady of the rosary)although natives the place nighboring town still call by its old named Salinas

During the revolution the ill-fated Tejeros convention was held on March 22 1897 in the fair state house in barios Tejeros,Magdiwangterritory.Today the Brios is called Tejeros convention in Memory of the Historic event.

There are two version of Nuestra Senora del Rosario .The first version says the image of the Madonna and Child was one day found floating on the water by a group of youngster playing along the seashore.The kids playing the image using its toys, and afterward they would hide it in bushsesnear in the sea.But everytime they comeback they saw the image already floating liesurely on the water as if waiting for them. They though it strange but could not explain how the image get back to the water.

Not long afterwards their elder learned about the image and they took it to an empty nipa shock.Thus began the public adoration of the Madonna and child.The hut was sonn transformed into a place worship.News if the miraculous happening image spread around.So great was religious fervor stied by the image among the people that they decided to adopt itas the patron saint of the town and change the Salinas Marcella to Rosario.

The second verrsionis sligthly different from the first. The image of Madonna an Child was found on a big Tamarind tree.The people decided to construct a small chapel and install the image on its altar,threafter holding an annual feast in the honor of Nuestr Senoro del Rosario evry firs Sunday of October.


Of ten Barrios of the Rosario,Bagbag is easily the most progresive. During the spanish time this place was a thickly forested area teeming with a wood cutters gatrhering firewood and charcoal.All day long in the forest reverated with a sound of wood cutting.People would say Binakbakan ang mga punongkahoy .Soon the people was called the Binakbakan or Bagbagan which eventually was shorten to Bagbag Its present name.the proximity of Bagbag to the poblacion make it a natural basin of the town overflow of the population as well of its economic and social progress.One of distiguished son of the Bagbag is Julio Mata three times municipal Precident of Rosario.

Muzon on the other hand is busy fishing center any time of the day.It was seperated from barrio San Juan de Dios in the 19th century.Maqny people goto Muzonto buy fresh.Fish called Lalaw or Tunsoy which later sold in Public marketof ajoining municipalities.

Spanish ship used to anchor near the beach of Muzon.During the Philipines Revolution a short battle was foughtr here beetwen spaniard and filipino revolutionunder the seargent Cordellio and Valentin Vivo later assisted by Capt. Mariano San Gabriel of san Francisco de Malabon.

A spanish warship that ran aground near Muzon bombarded the town of Rosario perhaps to ward off attacks by revolutionist cousing huge destruction in the thickly populated area.The Ship departed the next mouning upon the rising of the tide among the eminent son of Muzonwere Dr. Faustino Solis, Dr.Celestino Pugeda, Atty.Candido Samonte, Dr.Nemesio Prudente and Dr.Pedro Gionco.


Source: Saulo & de Ocampo - History of Cavite


Noveleta, a former barrio of Cavite el Viejo (Kawit), became an independent municipality on January 5,1868 presumably during the Spanish Governor General Jose de la Gandara y Navarro (1866-1869).Another source says Noveleta was founded one year earlier, in 1867.

Isabelo Manalo, one of the earliest inhabitants of the locality, was appointed first capitan de baras of Noveleta.This designation was later changed to gobernadorcillo. The record shows that the following had been gobernadorcillos of Noveleta:

(1) Severino Alvarez, (2) Bonifacio Caganap, (3) Felipe Mediran, (4) Mariano Salud, (5) Ariston Villanueva, (6) Mariano Alvarez, (7) Victoriano Alix, (8) Pascual Alvarez, (9) Alvaro Cafuir, (10) Anacleto Loctoc, (11) Gregorio Dacon, (12) Catalino Angkiko, (13) Mariano Torres, (14) Inocencio Salud, (15) Basillo Salud.

Mariano Alvarez, founder and president of the Sangguniang Bayan Magdiwang at the outbreak of the Revolution, had been governadorcillo before becoming captain municipal, the new title of town heads under the Maura Law of 1893.

Ironically, Noveleta was also formerly referred to by the Spaniards as Tierra Alta, meaning higher hround, because its ground level has higher than that of the neighboring towns of San Roque, Caridad, and cavite la Punta (now Cavite City). Today, as stated earlier, it is frequently inundated, posing the biggest drawback to its industrial and commercial development. Noveleta was also known by the revolutionary name Magdiwang, meaning to celebrate a momentous event, etc.

The Sangguniang Bayan Magdiwang of Noveleta, as distinguished from the Sangguniang Balangay ng Bayang Magtiis (Council Chapter of Magtiis) of san Francisco de Malabon (now General Trias), was coposed of the following: Mariano Alvarez, whose nom de guerre was Mainam (Good), president Pascual Alvarez, Bagong Buhay (New Life), secretary: and Santiago Alvarez, Kidlat ng Apoy (Ligthning Fire), Tranquilino Angkiko and others, members. Later the Magdiwang Council’ was retained, but the headquarters was transferred to San Francisco de Malabon, a much bigger town than Noveleta.

In the beginning Mariano Alvarez was the president of the Magdiwang Council. When Andres Bonifacio, the katipunan Supremo, arrived in San Francisco de Malabon in December 1896, the council was reorganized, and the following came out as the new officers. Bonifacio, Haring Bayan (King); Mariano Alvarez, Pangalawang Haring Bayan (Vice King); Ariston Villanueva, minister of war; Jacinto Labreras, minister of the interior; Diego Mojica, minister of finance; Mariano Trias, minister of grace and justice; Emiliano Riego de Dios, minister of Fomento; (Welfare); and Santiago Alvarez, captain general.

Mariano Alvarez, 65, founder of Magdiwang Council, was replaced by Bonifacio, 33, as head of the organization. Evidently, he gave way to the katipunan chieftain who was about half his age, and husband of this niece, Gregoria de Jesus.

The Magdiwang Council how a much bigger jurisdiction than the Magdalo Council founded by Emilio Aguinaldo. It include the following towns: (1) Cavite (the capital), (2) San Roque, (3) La Caridad, (4) Noveleta, (5) San Fracisco de Malabon, (6) Rosario, (7) Sta. Cruz de Malabon (now Tanza), (8) Naik, (9) maragondon, (10) Ternate, (11) Magallanes, (12) Bailen (now General Aguinaldo), (13) Indang, (14) Alfonso, (15) Mendez, and (16) Amadeo. Later the Magdiwang Council enbraced the Batangas towns of Nasugbu, Tuy, and Looc.

The Magdalo Council, on the other hand, comprised (1) Cavite el Viejo (now Kawit), (2) Bacoor, (3) Imus, (4) Dasmariñas, (5) Silang, and (6) Carmona. Later the Magdiwang towns of Mendez and Amadeo transferred to the Magdalo Council. Although controlling a smaller territory, the Magdalo Council was more militarily active than the Magdiwang Council. The Magdalo Council or goverment had almost daily battles with the Spaniards since the beginning of the Revolution. Consenquently, it produced more battle-tested generals, including emilio Aguinaldo, who became a living legend in Cavite after defeating the best of the Spanish generals. Evidently, Bonifacio was prevailed upon by the Magdiwang leaders to come to Cavite to wrest the leadership of the Revolution from Aguinaldo.

The name Noveleta is said to have originated from Nueva Isla or New Island, a tern frequently used by the spaniards, referring to the locality. In the early years of the Spanish regime visiting priests described the place as Nueva Late (New fate or Fortune). In the course of time these terms Nueva Isla and Nueva Lete involved of Noveleta.

But one legend tells the story of a beautiful maiden named Violeta who was betrothed by her father to a Spanish officer againts her will and despite the fact that she Spaniard, the unhappy girl committed suicide. The officer arrived the next morning and, finding her dead, cried and deep anguish, "Madre de Dios, no Violetal Oh, no Violetal" (Mother of God, no Violetal, Oh, no Violetal). The phase "No Violetal" kept on ringing in the public memory, eventually becoming "Noveleta" - the term used to identify the place.

Noveleta is composed of the following barangays: (1) Poblacion, (2) San Jose, (3) San Antonio, (4) San Juan, (5) Sta. Ana, (6) Salcedo, (7) Magdiwang, (8) San Rafael, and (9) Rafael II.

San Jose, one of the most progressive barangays, used to be known as "Balut-Balut’ because of its dense forest. The name was later change to "Baluk-Balok". Located on the opposite bank of the river Ilang-Ilang, it is also referred to as "Ibayo". Under Municipal Resolution No. 80, dated October 18, 1959, the name of the barrio was change to "San Jose". The former "tenientes del barrio" (barrio lieutenants) of san Jose were: (1) Agapito Mascardo, (2) Pedro Semper, (3) Remigio Semper, (4) Pastor Olaes, (5) Gerardo Cadiang, and (6) Rolando Majillo.

Barangay San Rafel originally started from the site of the Philippines Independent Church in Noveleta to the boundary of Cavite City. Due to its big area and population it was split into halves, namely, San Rafael I and san Rafael II. Barangay San Rafael I is populated mostly by professionals, businessman, and farmers. Both barangay have the same patron saint, St. Raphael.

The patron saint of barangays San Antonio and Sta. Rosa are indicated by their names. Mariano salud was the first cabeza de barangay of San Antonio. On other hand, the original settlers on the barangya Sta. Rosa bore the surnames Montana, Campus-pos, Castro, Saqui, Alix, de leon, and Luna.

Barangay Magdiwang, the latest addition to the barangays Noveleta, was named after the Magdiwang Council of the Katipunan. Barangay Salcedo appears to have named after the spanish conquistador Juan Salcedo. The two most outstanding land-marks of this barangay are the hug Pepsi Cola Bottle Company bodega, and the Love Memorial Park. Finally, barangay Poblacion is right in the center of the town. The municipal hall in the Noveleta, the puericulture center, and the main business establishments are located in this barangay.


Noveleta has a complete list of its town heads from the beginning of the American regime to the present. The list which includes also the vice-presidents or vice-mayors, is use follows.

MUNICIPAL PRESIDENT AND VICE-PRESIDENTS: (1) Alvarez, municipal president (appointed), 1901-1902; (2) Pascual Alvarez, ditto, 1902-1903; (3) Andres Ner, municipal president, and pascual Alvarez, vice-president (elected), 1904-1905; (4) Benigno Santi and Pascual Alvarez, municipal president and vice-president, respectively (elected), 1906-1907; (5) Andres Villanueva and Inocencio Salud, ditto, 1908-1910;

(6) Andres Giongco and Gregorio Trias, ditto, 1910-1914; (7) Mauricio Sta. Maria, municipal president (appointed), 1911-1912; (8) Felipe Vilanueva and Gavino Mediran, municipal president and vice-president, respectively (elected), 1913-1914; (9) Nicolas Ricafrente, municipal president (appointed), 1914-1915; (10) Diosdado Ricafrente, municipal president, ditto, 1915-1916;

(11) Maximo Alvarez and Eugenio Bartolome, municipal president and vice-president, respectively (elected), 1916-1919; (12) Gavino Mediran and Crispin Villena, ditto, 1919-1922; (13) Crispin Villena and Alberto Bunda, ditto, 1922-1925; (14) Alberto Bunda and Vicente Vallido, ditto, 1925-1928; (15) Antonio Reyes and Pedro Lontoc, ditto, 1928-1931; and (16) Francisco Ballejo, and Delfin Alvarez, ditto, 1931-1934.

MUNICIPAL MAYORS AND VICE MAYORS: (1) Miguel Alvarez and Francisco Vales, municipal mayor and vice-mayor, respectively, 1934-1938; (2) Defin Alvarez and Augusto Sta. maria, ditto, 1939-1940; (3) Defin Alvarez, municipal mayor (elected), 1941-1945; (4) Melencio Sumilang, ditto (appointed), 1945-1946; (5) Ricardo Lontocand Marco Valero, municipal mayor and vice-mayor, respectively (elected), 1949-1952; (6) Ricardo Lontoc and Marcos Valero, ditto, Marcos Valero, minicipal mayor (appointed), 1954-1956;

(8) Librado Reyes and Dr. Jose Salud, municipal amyor and vice-mayor, respectively (elected), 1956-1959; (9) Librado Reyes and Dr. Benjamin Vallido, ditto, 1959-1963; (10) Isabel Alvarez, municipal mayor (elected), 1964-1971; (11) Dr. Jose Salud and Dr. Jose A. Reyes, municipal mayor and vice-mayor, respectively (elected), 1972-1980; and (12) Jose A. Reyes and Benjamin Villarente, municipal mayor and vice-mayor, respectively (elected), 1980-1986; (13) Jose O. Salud, 1988-April 20, 1989; (14) Virgilio L Saqui, 1989.

Source: Saulo & de Ocampo - Cavite History


Naik is a rarely used but highly cultured Tagalog word meaning "suburbs" or "countryside." It is not archaic as one Filipino scholar contends. For more than a century Naik was a part or suburb of the elder town of Maragondon .

One source claims that Naik was founded in 1971. But another source maintains that it was established earlier – in 1758 – by the Dominican friars. By whichever date Naik was founded, it is evident that Maragondon, its mother town, had been in existense as a regular municipality independent of Silang, one of the oldest towns in Cavite Province, second only to Cavite el Viejo (now Kawit), the first settlement visited by the Spaniards upon their arrival in Luzon. It is said that Spaniards from Maragondon regularly visited Naik, eventually turning it into a thriving suburb.

The research made by public school teachers of Cavite reveals that Dominican friars owned most of the fertile lands of Naik. The administrators of these estates were known as uldogs. It was the uldogs who dealt directly with the inquilinos (leaseholders) and kasamas (tenants). The uldogs were most feared and hated by the masses because of their abuses. It was this feeling of resentment against the uldogs and their friar superiors that united and mobilized the Filipinos against the Spaniards during the Philippine Revolution.

The prominent people who paved the way for the revolution in Naik included former gobernadorcillos and capitanes municipal; namely, Cirilo Arenas, Gregorio (Goyo) Jocson, in whose house General Aguinaldo recuperated from illness, Benito Poblete, and Tobal Bustamante.

Aguinaldo had a soft spot in his heart for the town of Naik fo the following reasons: (1) it was in Naik he formed a "cabinet of reconciliation" as a president of the Revolutionary Government, after Easter Sunday of 1897 (2) Aguinaldo was ready to die with his boots on, i.e., fighting, in the battle of Naik, when suddenly he was saved from certain death by a Taong Agila (Eagle Man) in the person of General Mariano Riego de Dios, and (3) Aguinaldo caught Andres Bonifacio and his followers in the act of adopting the Naik Military Agreement, a treasonous document, calling for the establishment of a separate government and army, the latter to be headed by General Pio del Pilar. Found guilty of sedition and treason, Bonifacio and his brother Procopio were executed on May 10, 1897.

The 30 barrios /barangays compromising Naik are the following: (1) Bukana, (2) Bucana Sasahan, (3) Bagong Kalsada, (4) Balsahan, (5) Bancaan, (6) Calubcob, (7) Capt. Ciriaco Nazareno, (8) Central, (9) Humbac, (10) Gomez-Zamora, (11) Halang, (12) Ibayo Silangan, (13) Ibayo Estacion, (14) Kanluran, (15) Manbulo, (16) Munting Mapino, (17) Mozon, (18) Makina, (19) Malainen bago, (20) Malaine Luma, (21) Molino, (22) Palangue, (23) Latoria, (24) San Roque, (25) Santulan, (26) Sapa, (27) Sabang, (28) Labac, (29) Timalan Concepcion, (30) Timalan Balsahan.

Of these 30 barrios/barangays the following are the most historical:

1. Bancaan – meaning a place where the boats used for crossing the river were moored; (2) Bucana – meaning mouth or entrance of the river; (3) Halang – refering to a bridge built across the street; and Labac – meaning a low place serving as basin of floodwater.


The following is a list of municipal presidents and mayors of Naik from the beginning of the American regime to the present:

1. Marcial Velasquez, (2) Blas Cena, (3) Leoncio Velasco, (4) Cristobal Bustamante, (5) Andres Gonzales, (6) Pedro Valenzuela, (7) Ciriaco Nazareno, (8) Vicente Diosomito, (9) Jose Nazareno, (10) Ciriaco Ramos, (11) Blas Poblete, (12) Mariano Nazareno, (13) Antero Tanega, (14) Fidel Bustamante, (15) Emilio Arenas, (16) Crispulo Miguelino, (17) Saturno Ramirez, (18) Leon D. Nazareno, (19) Macario B. PeÑa, 1955-1976, (20) Clemente I. Mojica, 1976-1980; (21) Elvira Nazareno, December 1980-March 2, 1981; and (22) Clemente I. Mojica, March 3, 1981-1986; (23) Elvira B. Nazareno, 1988

Source: Saulo & de Ocampo - Cavite History


MENDEZ has a brief but checkered history. It started as a mere sitio of Indang called Gahitan, derived from the Tagalog word gahit (to cut), referring to the cutting of cogon grass which abounded in this place during the early Spanish times.

As time went on, the number of houses in Gahitan increased so that the sitio eventually became a barrio and finally a full-fledged town on December 1, 1875, thanks to Governor General Jose Malcampo Y Monje (1874-1877). Malcampo incorporated the three barrios of Gahitan, Palocpoc and Anuling into one independent municipality called MENDEZ-NUÑEZ.

Why was it called Mendez-Nuñez? It is believed that the town was named by Malcampo, a Spanish admiral, after a close friend. In 1856 two Spanish naval officers, Jose Malcampo and Castro Mendez-Nuñez, established the first Masonic lodge in Kawit under a charter from the Grand Lodge of Portugal. The friendship of these two officers had been tested in many a battle against Muslim pirates from Mindanao, and in memory of his friend Admiral Malcampo, after he had became governor general of the Philippines, named the new town Mendez-Nuñez.

Mendez continued to be a municipality from 1875 to October 15, 1903 when, under Public Act No. 947, the Philippine Commission reduced the 22 municipalities of Cavite to nine. Mendez and Bailen (now General Aguinaldo) were incorporated into the municipality of Alfonso. But 12 years later, on January 1, 1915, Mendez regained its independent status as a municipality of Cavite Province.

Pedro Aure was the gobernadorcillo of Mendez during its first year as a municipality in 1876. Cayetano Aure, perhaps a relative of Pedro, was the first and only capitan municipal of Mendez during the First Philippine Republic, 1899-1901. Pedro’s son, Marcelino Aure, became a famous general during the Philippine Revolution. His nom de guerre was Alapaap (Cloud).

When the Americans established a civil government in the Philippines, General Aure was appointed municipal president of Mendez 1901-1903. It was at the end of his term that Mendez was merged with Bailen and Alfonso under the name of the latter.


The municipal executives of Mendez from its establishment to the present are the following:

GOBERNADORCILLOS, 1876-1894; (1) Pedro aure, (2) Felix Aure, (3) Francisco Ruiz, (4) Modesto Dimapilis, (5) Esteban Aure, and (6) Bonifacio Aure.

CAPITANES MUNICIPAL: (1) Balbino Crucillo, 1895-1896 (during the Spanish regime); and (2) Cayetano Aure, 1898-1899 (under the First Philippine Republic).

MUNICIPAL PRESIDENTS: (1) Severino Llamado, 1990-1901; (2) Marcelino Aure, 1901-1903. [From 1903 to 1915, Mendez lost its independent status as it was merged with Bailen and Alfonso.] (3) Agustin Dimaranan, 1919-1916 (appointed); (4) Damaso Panganiban, 1916-1919 (elected); (5) Agustin Dimaranan, 1919-1922; (6) Pedro Aure Alegre, 1922-1925; (7) Pedro Aure Alegre, 1925-1928; (8) Pedro Aure Perey, 1928-1929; (9) Pedro Aure Alegre, 1929-1931; and (10) Pedro Aure Perey, 1931-1934.

MUNICIPAL MAYORS: (1) Miguel Mojica, 1934-1937; (2) Miguel Mojica, 1938-1941; (3) Pedro Aure Alegre, 1942-1945; (4) Miguel Mojica, 1946-1947; (5) Miguel Mojica, 1948-1951; (6) Felipe D. Aure, 1952-1955; (7) Mariano Dimapilis, 1956-1959; (8) Honesto P. Mojica, 1960-1963; (9) Honesto P. Mojica, 1964-1968; (10) Pablo Vidamo, 1968-1970; (11) Francisco L. Mendoza, 1972-1975; (12) Francisco L. Mendoza, 1975-1977; (13) Tomas H. Torneros, Jr., 1977-1980; and Francisco L. Mendoza, 1980

Source: Saulo & de Ocampo. Cavite History


The name Maragondon was derived fro Tagalog word madagundong or maugong, meaning much sound. Actually the sounds comes from a noisy river called Kay Albaran in the barrio of Capantayan. This area was the first townsite selected, but because the river frequently overflowed its bank and in undated the place it was later transferred to its present site. The word madagundong not being pleasant to ears, the people had it change to marigundong in honor of the town’ s patron saint, Nueatra Senora Maria Asuncion ( Our Lady of The Assumption ).

Soon after the establishment of the American regime, Lope K. Santos , an authority on Tagalog language and member of a geographic committee created to "investigate and revise" the names of Philippine towns and provinces, recommended the change of Marigundong to "Maragondon" definitely more pleasing to the hear, the present name of the town

Incidentally, Maragondon has three foundation dates; namely, 1. ) 1611 when the Franciscan Fathers from Silang established their first visita or chapel; 2.) 1690, the Fundacion Ecclesiastica or founding of the regular parish by the Jesuits, dedicating it to Our Lady of the Assumption; 3.) 1727, the Fundacion Civil, when the original barrio of Maragondon was separated from Silang during the administration of the Recollects and converted into an independent municipality with Gregorio Silvestre has he first gobernadorcillo. Maragondon belonged to the corregimiento of Mariveles (now Bataan province) until 1754 when Spanish gevernor General Pedro Manuel de Arandia (1754 – 1759) abolished the politico – military administration and restored Maragondon Cavite Province.

In the second half of the 19th century the towns of Ternate, Magallanes, Bailen, Alfonso, and Naik were mere barrios of Maragondon. Ternate was seperated from Maragondon on March 31, 1857, under an agreement signed by Tomas de Leon, Felix Nigosa, Pablo de Leon, Florencio Nino Franco and Juan Ramos in behalf of the Ternatenos and by Roman Riego de Dios, Cazinto Riel , Pablo Dino, Eulalio Lizardo, and Francisco Villafranca in behalf of Maragondon .

Furthermore, Bailen (now Gen. Aguinaldo) and Alfonso seceded from Maragondon in 1858. Maggalanes followed suit on July 15,1879 under an agreement signed by Crisostomo Riel presenting Maragondon, and by Isidro Bello and company representing Magallanes.

Maragondon played a significant role in the Philippine revolution. Although the own belonged to the jurisdiction at the Magdiwang Council, its brave sons like the three Riego de brothers ( Emiliano, Vicente and Mariano), Esteban Imfante, Crisostomo Riel, Vicente Somosa and Antero C. Reyes proved their unflinching loyalty to the revolutionary cause by not allowing themselves to be dragged away by Andres Bonifacio when the later, depeated and unwilling to avide by the result of the Tejeros Convention, Attempted to set up a separate government and army.

All of them stuck to the revolutionary headed by Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo. Emiliano and Mariano Riego de Dios became top ranking generals; Vicente, a colonel, commanded the revolutionary troops as signed at Noveleta, the Magdiwang headquarters. Gen. Emilaiano Riego de Diosa was one of the three provincial governors of Cavite under the revolutionary government; and Mariano became the Taong Aguila (Eagle man ) who saved Aguinaldo from certain death in the battle of Naik. Gen. Mariano Riego de Dios, Colonel Riel and Infante were members of the council of war that tried and convicted the Bonifacio brothers (Andres and Procorpio) of sedition and treason against the dully established the revoluitonary government of Aguinaldo.

The Bonifacio brothers were sentenced to death by the council of war owing to their counter revolutionary activities. Mriano Riego de Dios and Infante believed the sentence was quiet harsh and abstain from signing the death verdict. This group that the council of war was no kangaroo court they merrily wanted banishment for the Bonifacio brothers. Aguinaldo agreed with them and ordered commutation of the sentence from death to banishment to the mountain of Pico de Loro in Maragondon. At the seniors general, including Mariano Noriel, chairman of military court, and del Pilar, to prevail upon Aguinaldo to withdraw the commutation. Bonifacio’s were executed in Mt. Nagpatong, not Mt. Buntis as erroneously stated in most history book on May 10, 1897.

Maragondon has three barangays in the Poblacion and 15 barrios; namely, 1.) Barangay 1 (population, 1026) 2.) Barangay II (550), 3.) Barangay III (1626), 4.) Bucal I (1660), 5.) Kaputatan (987), 6.) Garita (683), 7.) Mabacao (1349) 8.) Patungan (714), 9. Pinagsanhan (798) 10) Bucal II (595) 11.) Bucal III (911) 12.) Bucal IV (921) 13.) Pantihan I (372) 14.) Pantihan II (349), 15. ) PantihanIII (668), 16.) Pantihan IV (655), 17.) Talipusngo (694), 18.) Mabato (229). (1984 figures).


For more than three centuries officials of Maragondon have scrupulously kept a complete of its town heads from its establishment as a municipality to the present. The list follows:

GOVERNADORCILLOS: 1.) Gregorio Silvestre 1727; 2.) Ignacio de Loyola 1728; 3.) Agustin Panganiban 1729; 4.) Esteban Mariano 1730; 5.) Manuel Magno, 1731; 6.) Juan Baclao, 1732; 7.) Domingo Tayde 1733; 8.) Silvestre de Sosa 1734; 9.) Tomas Andaya, 1735; 10.) Juan Capule, 1736;

11.) Ignacio Santiago , 1737; 12.) Agustin Santiago, 1738; 13.) Juan Bulungan, 1739; 14.) Mariano de Medina 1740; 15. ) Gregorio de Loyola, 1741; 16.) Agustin Silvestre, 1742; 17.) Joseph Nabrier, 1743; 18.) Juan Pareja, 1744; 19.) Tomas sdela Cruz, 1745; 20.) Nicolas dela Cruz, 1746;

21)Pedro Macalindang 1747; 22.) Salvador Asuncion 1748; 23.) Mariano Mendoza,1749; 24.) Ignacio de Leon 1750; 25.) Nicolas Marquez, 1751; 26.) Juan Esguerra 1752; 27.) Joseph Nabrier 1753; 28.) Manuel M. Marquez, 1754; 29.) Agustin Dinglasan 1755; 30.) Juan Maglabi, 1756,

31.) Juan Pareja, 1757; 32 .) Francisco Andaya, 1758; 33.) Melchor Dalung, 1759; 34.) Nicolas de Matulao 1760; 35.) Francisco Ignacio, 1761; 36.) Salvador Reymundo, 1762; 37.) Manuel Malimban 1763; 38.) Pedro Geronimo 1764; 39.) Joseph Nabrier 1765; 40.) Agustin de Loyola 1766;

41.) Ignacio Magalis 1767; 42.) Juan Pareja 1768; 43.) Juan Panganiban 1769; 44.) Mariano Vicente 1770; 45.) Juan Laguibo 1771; 46.) Nicolas Pareja 1772; 47.) Pedro Gervacio de Joya 1773; 48.) Tomas de Leon 1774; 49. ) Tomas Victorino deLos Angeles 1775; 50.) Domingpo Ignacio 1776;

51.) Silvestre Dalusag 1777; 52.) Ignacio Santiago 1778; 53.) Juan Parejo 1779; 54.) Tomas de Leon 1780; 55.) Tomas Victorino delos Angeles 1781; 56.) Nicolas dela Cruz 1782; 57.) Juan Pannganiban 1783; 58.) Juan Pareja 1784.; 59.) Juan Maglabi 1785; 60.) Tomas Bernardo Viray 1786;

61.) Juan Ignacio 1787; 62.) Tomas Victorino delos Angeles 1788; 63.) Juan Panganiban 1789; 64.) Nicolas Antonio Reyes 1790; 65.) Juan Laguibo 1791; 66.) Felipe delos Reyes 1792; 67.) Domingo Ignacio 1793; 68.) Marcos Teodoro 1794; 69.) Juan Agumpon 1795; 70.) Agustin Ignacio Malimbam 1796;

71.) Tomas Victorino delos Angeles 1797; 72.) Hipiloto Gregorio Icasiano, 1798-1799; 73.) Juan Agumpon, 1800; 74.) Tomas Victorino delos Angeles 1801; 75.) Juan Estanislao 1802; 76.) Juan Vicente Ignacio 1803; 77.) Joseph Erasmo Magno, 1805; 78.) Juan Pasco 1806; 79.) Hipolito Gregorio Icasiano 1807; 80.) Bernardo Punongbayan 1808;

81.) Andres delos Angeles 1809; 82.) Joseph Erasmo Magno, 1810; 83.) Cripin Viray 1811; 84.) Francisco Cardenas 1812; 85.) Juan Macario 1813; 86.) Francisco Cardenas 1814; 87.) Justo Mendoza 1815; 88.) Andres Cuevas 1816; 89) Ciriaco Bernardo Viray 1870; 90.) Francisco Mendoza 1818;

91.) Severino Buenaventura Venta 1819-1820; 92.) Bernardo Punungbayan 1821; 93.) Socrino Buenaventure Venta 1822; 94.) Dionisio De Leon and Tomas Mendoza 1823; 95.) Bernardo Punongbayan 1825; 96.) Miguel De Leon 1826; 97.) Felizardo Serbascio 1827; 98.) Ubaldo Mendoza 1828; 99.) Ciriaco Bernardo Viray 1829; 100.) Dionisio de Leon 1830;

101.) Aniceto Punongbayan 1831; 102.) Santiago Fulgencio 1832; 103.) Pedro delos Angeles 1833; 104.) Redosindo Reymundo 1834; 105.) Pedro de leon 1835. 106.) Ciriaco Bernardo Viray 1836-1837; 107.) Eulalio Ignacio 1838; 108.) Vicente Malimban 1839; 109.) Leonardo Ignacio, 1840; 110.) Alejandro Manuel 1841 –1842;

111.) Pioquinto delos Angeles 1843; 112.) Pedro Bernardo Viray 1844; 113. Roman de Dios 1845-1846; 114. Salvador delos Santos 1847; 115.) Leonardo Ignacio 1848: 116.) Tomas Enriquez, 1849; 117.) Andres delos Angeles 1850; 118.) Eulalio Ignacio 1851; 119.) Alejandro Antonio 1852; 120.) Andres delos Angeles 1853;

121.) Eustacio Cuajunco,1854; 122.) Alejandro Antonio 1855; 123.) Jacinto Riel 1856; 124.) Bonifacio de leon 1857; 125.) Roman Riego de Dios 1858; 126.) Eulalio Lizardo Ignacio 1859; 127.) Estanislao Martin Angeles1860; 128.) Braulio Riel 1861; 129.) Alejandro Rillo 1862; 130.) Isaac Cuajunco 1863-1864;

131.) Tomas Enriquez 1865- 1866; 132.) Doroteo Riego de Dios 1867-1868; 133.) Juan Riel 1869-1870; 134.) Alejandro Rillo 1871- 1872; 135.) Juan Lizardo 1873-1875; 136.) Esperidion Alvarez 1876 –1877; 137) Crisostomo Riel 1878-1879; 138.) Victorino Villafranca 1880; 139.) Crisostomo Riel 1881-1882; 140.) Engrasio Rillo 1883 –1884;

141.) Sutero Riego de Dios 1885-1886; 142.) Luis Angeles 1887-1888; 143.) Esteban Infante and Teniente Primero Juan Angeles 1889-1890; 144.) Eduardo Reyes 1891-1892; 145.) Emiliano Riego De Dios 1893 –1894;

CAPITANES MUNICIPAL: 1. Emilaino Riego de Dios 1895 –1896 2. Primitibo Cuajunco 1897; and 3.) Luis Rillo 1899.

MUNICIPAL PRESIDENTS: 1. Florentino De Guia, Joaquin Anngeles, Tomas Abansena and Pedro Riel; 2. Paustino Mendoza 1901; 3. Joaquin Angeles 1902 –1903; 4. Florentino de Guia and Vicente Cuajunco 1904; 5. Joaquin Angeles 1905 –190; 6. Teodoro Angeles, 1908 –1911; 7. Bibiano Angeles 1912 –1914; 8.) Leandro Riel 1915-1917; 9). Antonio Malimban 1918 –1920; 10,) Eusebio Angeles 1921 –1923; 11.) Florentino de Guia 1924-1926 and 12.) Jose Unas 1929 –1935.

MUNICIPAL MAYORS : 1. Jose Malimban 1936-1939; 2.) Bonfacio Gancayco 1940 –1946; 3,) Patrocinio Gulapa 1946-1948; 4.) Eriberto de Guia 1948-1950; 5.) Severino Rillo 1951-1953; 6.) Atanacio Castronuevo 1953- 1955; and 7.) Telesforo A. Unas 1956-1986.; 8.) Paulito C. Unas 1988

Source: Saulo & de Ocampo. Cavite History


Magallanes began its history as a barrio called Panitan, then a part of the municipality of Maragondon. Panitan was derived from the Tagalog word panit (to remove the bark of a tree). Long before the coming of the Spaniards, there grew along the mountainside of this barrio big called Bitangcol which provide a source of income for the people. The barks of the trees are removed (panitan) and used as containers for storing palay or unhusked rice. The fibers of the barks were removed and twined into durable ropes. Because of this unusual occupation of the people the barrio came to be known as Panitan of Banitan.

The first inhabitants of Panitan were Isidro Baltao, Glicerio Manalo, Florentino Mojica, and Ignacio Arat. Time came when the people, tired of travelling the long distance to the poblacion of Maragondon, decided to seek the separation of the barrio and its conversion into an independent municipality. Isidro Balto headed a three-man delegation to Manila to petition the Spanish governor-general for the conversion of Panitan into a town. The governor-general promptly approved the petition.

While still in Manila Baltao and his companions were walking along the paved streets of Intramuros when they came upon Magallanes street and, then and there, they decided to recommend that the new municipality be named Magallanes in honor of Ferdinand Magellan. The governor general was said to have been impressed by the name Magallanes, and he also named the barrios of the new town after Spanish leaders and missionaries like Urdaneta, Ramirez, Pachero, and Medina. Other streets of the town were also named after prominent Spaniards like Jovellar, Salcedo, Anda, Colon, San Jose, and San Isidro.

As in most towns in the Philippines, the principal street was named Real (Royal), in honor of the Spanish king. Another street bore the name of "de Guia" after the patron saint of the town, Nuestra Señore de Guia (Our Lady of the Way).

Barrio Panitan, renamed Magallanes, became an independent municipality on July 15, 1879. Another source says that municipality of Magallanes was established in 1880, a difference of one year. At any rate, the first gobernadorcillo of Magallanes was Anastacio Diones. The designation gobernadorcillo was changed to capitan municipal shortly before the outbreak of the Philippine Revolution. Juan Bello, a former capitan municipal, was the leader of Filipino revolutionists again Spain. When the Americans came the title capitan municipal was changed to municipal president.

In 1904 the town of Magallanes was reverted to a barrio of Maragondon when its annual income became insufficient to maintain its status as an independent municipality. It was only in 1916 that Magallanes once again became a town.


The following is a list of town heads of Magallanes since it became a municipality: GOBERNADORCILLOS: (1) Anastacio Diones, 1880-1881; (2) Ciriaco Rillo, 1881-1882; (3) Braulio Mendoza (teniente primero), 1882; (4) Benito Bello, 1883-1884; (5) ----------------------; (6) Juan Bello, 1887-1888; (7) Luis Rillo, 1888-1889; (8) Modesto Cuajunco, 1890-1891; and (9) Juan Bello, 1892-1893.

CAPITANES MUNICIPAL: (1) Juan Bello, 1894-1897; (2) Pastor Bilugan, 1897-1898; and (3) Juan Bello, 1898-1900.

MUNICIPAL PRESIDENTS: (1) Modesto Cuajunco, 1900-1901; and (2) Juan Bello, 1902-1904. [Magallanes reverted to a barrio from 1904 to 1916.] (3) Quirico Ogot (acting), 1916-1917; (4) Agapito Espineli (elected), 1917-1919; (5) Antonio Espineli, 1920-1922; (6) Zacarias Diones, 1923-1925; (7) Agapito Espineli, 1926-1928; (8) Zacarias Diones, (1929-1931; and (9) Zacarias Diones, 1932-1934.

MUNICIPAL MAYORS: (1) Maximo Linantud, 1935-1937; (2) Felipe Espineli, 1938-1940; (3) Felipe Espineli, 1941-1943, (4) Benvenuto Espineli (acting), 1944-1945; (5) Gregorio Asuncion, ditto, 1946; (6) Calixto Espineli, ditto, 1947; (7) Benvenuto Espineli (elected), 1948-1950; (8) Benvenuto Espineli, 1951-1955; (9) Mariano de Raya, 1956-1959; (10) Mariano de Raya, (1960-1962; (11) Juan Ramos (Acting), 1962-1963; (12) Anatolio Reyes (elected), 1964-1967; (13) Felipe Custodio (Acting), (1967); (14) Anatolio Reyes (elected), 1967-1969, (15) Napoleon Beratio (acting), 1969-1970; (16) Anatolio Reyes (elected), 1970-1972; (17) Efinito Beltran, 1972-1980; and (18) Napoleon Beratio (elected), 1980


Although the main source of livelihood in Magallanes is agriculture, it is evident that there has been a shift in emphasis from rice farming to coffee production because of the growing market demand for coffee. This is revealed in a study made by the Provincial Development Staff at Trece Martirez City. Another reason is that the production of rice, corn and a wide variety of vegetables and fruits is more than sufficient to satisfy the nutritional demand of the population.

However, there is a large deficit in livestock and poultry production, which has been relegated to a backyard industry. To solve this problem there is need to encourage the establishment of livestock and poultry farms on a commercial scale. The local development plan calls for the introduction of high-yielding breeds and the conversion of idle lands into grazing pastures.

Magallanes has a potential labor force of 5,066 or 52.3 per cent of the total population. However, only 2,725 or 54 per cent of this number are economically active. The town has also a low unemployment rate of 3.7 per cent with only 100 of this labor force listed a unemployed. The existence of large and productive agricultural lands offers a wide variety of economic activities. The agricultural sector absorbs as much as 82 per cent of the labor force, while the service sector comprising teachers and government employees and workers account for only 15.6 per cent. A negligible 2.4 per cent are absorbed by the manufacturing, transportation and other commercial industries.

In 1980 the municipality’s 2,250 families with an average of four members per family, earned a total of P 17,992,882, showing an average family income of P 7,997.00. About 71.9 per cent of the number belonged to the low group while 24.1 per cent comprised the middle class group. Only about 4 per cent of the population constituted the high income group. About 54 per cent or 1,223 families fall below the food threshold of P 5,272.86 and 1,781 or 79 per cent were below the total threshold of P 9,895.87.

The 1980 economic survey shows that the municipality had 2,043 households occupying 2,015 dwelling units, or a slight shortage of 28 housing units. Majority of the dwellings were of strong materials, including wood, galvanized iron, and concrete. The large percentage of houses using concrete may be due to the presence of a large gravel deposit comprising more that 300 hectares located in barangays Ramirez and Urdaneta. Plans for its development is now under study by the provincial government coordination with the Bureau of Mines.

In terms of health and sanitation Magallanes is deficient in health personnel and facilities. It lacks one doctor, one nurse, one dentist and two barangay health stations. The low awareness of proper sanitation and nutrition among the people, especially those of the lower class, aggravates the present health condition in the municipality.

Transportation within and outside the town is mainly by buses and jeepneys. The road network is quite poor. It has approximately 77.639 kilometers of road, 43.922 kilometers being classified as primary, 19.217 secondary, and 15.500 tertiary road. It has one national road with a length of 22.35 kilometers, one provincial road extending 0.263 kilometer, eight municipal roads with a total length of 3.026 kilometers, and 18 barangay roads totalling 52 kilometers.

Only the poblacion is served with electricity by the CEDA (Communications and Electricity Development Authority), and the barrios depend on oil, gas, and kerosene lamps. There is no piped water system in the municipality. In the poblacion water supply comes from deep wells driven by electric pumps. Artesian wells, open wells, and springs comprise the common source of potable water for the rural areas.

Population growth is relatively low in Magallanes due to outmigration. The lack of employment and educational opportunities has caused the skilled workers to settle elsewhere.

Source: Saulo & de Ocampo - Cavite History


Aptly described as the "Flag Town of the Republic," Kawit is the oldest municipality in Cavite Province, having been founded in 1587, 16 years after Miguel Lopez de Legazpi occupied Manila and proclaimed as the capital of the Philippines. Another source, however, says that Kawit was founded in 1600. Kawit is also the most literate town of Cavite Province.

Because of the independence proclaimed by General Emilio Aguinaldo in Kawit eighty-six years ago, the Philippines ceased to be a Spanish colony and became free, independent, and sovereign nation. Like the United States the Philippines was born of revolution. The Philippine Republic inaugurated in Malolos on January 23, 1899 was the first such republic in Asia, antedating the Chinese Republic under Sun Yat-sen by 12 years. In the words of President Marcos, it was "the first republic established by a brown people."

The name Kawit is derived from the Tagalog word kawit (hook) which is suggestive of its location at the base of a hookshaped shoreline along Manila Bay extending to the tip of Cavite City. Kawit was the most thriving settlement prior to the coming of the Spaniards. In fact, it provided the first anchorage of the Spaniards in the province, whence colonization and proselytization of the Christian religion began, spreading to all corners of the province.

Legend, however, gives another version on how the town got its name. One day a Spanish visitor asked a native blacksmith about the name of the village. The latter was busy at the time pounding on the anvil a piece of hot metal that looked like a hook. He hesitated to speak, not understanding what the stranger was asking, but when pressed for an answer, and thinking that he wanted to know what he was doing, he merely said kawit (hook). The Spaniards left muttering the word kawit. In the course of the time the word kawit evolved into "cawite," and finally "cavite".

For a long time the place was called by the Spaniards "Cavite el Viejo" or Old Cavite to distinguish it from "Cavite la Punta" or "Cavite el Puerto," the commercial port and naval base (now Cavite City) whence came many Spanish marines on shore leave who made frequent visits to Cavite el Viejo, eventually turning it into a red light district. The bad reputation of the place, however, was completely wiped out when it was placed under the spiritual supervision of the Jesuits during the administration of Manila Archbishop Miguel Garcia Serrano (1618-1629).

Cavite el Viejo was then a big town, comprising the municipality of Kawit today, Cavite la Punta (now Cavite City), Noveleta (called Tierra Alta by the Spaniards), and Imus. One after the other these three barrios seceded and became independent municipalities. For instance, Cavite la Punta became Cavite, the provincial capital, and later Cavite City.

Shortly after the discovery of the Katipunan in Manila on August 19, 1896, Cavite el Viejo became the nerve center of the Revolution. Emilio Aguinaldo, the capitan municipal, led the capture of the tribunal or municipal building of Cavite el Viejo on August 31, between two and three o’clock in the afternoon. Earlier that same day the towns of San Francisco de Malabon (now General Trias) and Noveleta had risen in arms and overthrown the local Spanish administration.

Right after the capture of the Kawit tribunal, Aguinaldo issued a manifest inviting his fellow capitane municipal in Cavite province to "join me in rising against Spain and break the chains of slavery that have bound us with her all these hundred years…" Furthermore, Aguinaldo, already thinking in terms of a national liberation struggle, issued another manifest on October 31, calling for the creation of a revolutionary government to carry on the revolution against Spain.

Aguinaldo had defeated the best of the Spanish generals (Ernesto de Aguirre in the Battle of Imus, September 3, 1896; Ramon Blanco in the Battle of Binakayan, November 9-11; and Antonio Zaballa in the Battle of Anabu, February 1897) in fair combat, giving him the reputation of Indio conqueror of the Spanish conquistadores. Con sequently, he became a living legend even before Andres Bonifacio came to Cavite in a vain attempt to wrest the leadership of the Revolution from Aguinaldo.

Realizing that the name Cavite el Viejo was a Spanish corruption of the fine Tagalog word kawit, the Philippine Commission on September 20, 1907 approved Act No. 1718 changing the town’s name to Kawit.

The history of Kawit is inextricably linked with the life of Aguinaldo. To paraphrase Thomas Caryle (1795-1881), the great Scottish historian and philosopher, the history of Kawit is the story-biography-of Aguinaldo, its most illustrious son.


Aside from Emilio Aguinaldo, Kawit has produced six other revolutionary, generals namely, 1) Candido Tria Tirona (1862-1896), 2) Crispulo Aguinaldo (1864-1897), 3) Baldomero Aguinaldo (1869-1915), 4) Tomas Mascardo (1871-1932), 5) Daniel Tria Tirona (1865-1939), and 6) Gregoria Montoya (1863-1896), posthumously promoted to general. The story of their lives makes up the most glorious chapter not only of the history of Kawit but also of the Philippines.

Such a glorious past cannot but serve as a worthy prologue to an equally distinguished contemporary history of Kawit. The past always serves as a challenge to the present characters or dramatis personae on the stage, among them the following Kawiteños: 1) Cesar E. A. Virata, prime minister of the Fourth Republic; 2) Supreme Court Associate Justice Ameurfina Aguinaldo Melencio Herrera, who spent a great part of her young life in Kawit although she was born in her father’s home province, Nueva Ecija; 3) Dr. Josefa Ilano, former chairman of the board of trustees, Siliman University; 4) Brig. Gen. Jaime Muyargas of the Philippine Air Force, and his brother, Brig. Gen. Rodolfo Muyargas of the Philippine Army; 5) former Ambassador Benjamin Tria Tirona (now deceased), member of the Sangguniang Panlalawigan ng Cavite; 6) Maximiano S. Janiro, retired colonel, U.S. Army, member of the Philippine bar, and a graduate of the the U.S. Military Academy at West Point (class of 1926). Incidentally, Col. Janairo, who now resides in Alexandria, Virginia, U.S.A, with his wife, the former Amelia Romualdez, daughter of the late Manila Mayor Miguel Romualdez, has two sons, Maximiano, Jr. and Antonio, both graduates of the famed West Point Military Academy, and a daughter, Lita.

Kawit’s 12 Barrios

(1) Binakayan

(2) Marulas

(3) Gahak

(4) Kaingen

(5) Poblacion

(6) Wakas

(7) Tabon

(8) Toclong

(9) Panamitan

(10) Magdalo

(11) Sta. Isabel

(12) San Sebastian

Several of these barrios/barangay have names suggestive of their origin. Binakayan, for instance, was drived from the Tagalog word bakay (to watch); Marulas from madulas (slippery); Gahak from gahak (torn to destroyed); Tabon from tabon (to cover or covered); Kaingen from kaingin (forest clering); and Panamitan from paminwitan (fishing grounds). Each barrio has a legend of its own explaining how it came into existence.


Despite the fact that Kawit is the oldest municipality in Cavite, the available records in the National Archives date only from 1774 to 1900. However, the first map showing the town of Cavite el Viejo is dated 1734. It is included in the book written by the Jesuit historian, Fr. Pedro Murillo y Velarde, S. J., Historica general de la Provincial de Filipinas de la Compania de Jesus. Manila, 1749. The map was engraved by Nicolas de la Cruz Bagay, a Filipino printer.

Town Heads of Kawit

The incomplete list of gobernadorcillos and tenientes primero of Cavite el Viejo follows:

GOBERNADORCILLOS: (1) Leoncio de Sta. Rita, June 26, 1827; (2) Leoncio Ramos, June 1829; (3) Ladislaw Lucero de Medina, c1833; (4) Leoncio Mateo, December 4, 1834; (5) Bonifacio Juan Ronquillo, December 1837; (6) Pedro Juan Capistrano, 1842-1844; (7) Anacleto de la Cruz, 1844-1846; (8) Jose lopez Luibao, gobernadorcillo, and Teodorico Samaniego, teniente primero; (10) Estanislao Tria Tirona, gobernadorcillo,and Remigio Matro Mateo, teniente primero;

(11) Ignacio Samaniego, December 1858; (12) Estanislao Tria Tirona, 1872; (13) Carlos Aguinaldo, gobernadorcillo, and Manuel Basa, teniente primero, 1875-1877; (14) Mariano Ayson, gobernadorcillo, and Rufino Rieta, teniente primero,1877-1879; (15) Agripino Rieta gobernadorcillo, and Agaton Diaz, teniente primero, 1789-1881; (16) Licerio Lagda gobernadorcillo, and Mariano Ayson, teniente primero, 1881-1883; (17) Justo Dano gobernadorcillo, and Valentin Mascardo, teniente primero, 1885-1887; (18) Crispulo Aguinaldo gobernadorcillo, and Tiburcio Diaz, teniente primero, 1888-1890, and 1890-1892; (20) Eusebio de Castro, 1892-1894; and (21) Crispulo Aguinaldo, 1894;

CAPITANES MUNICIPAL: (1) Emilio Aguinaldo, 1895-1896; and (2) Candido Tria Tirona,1896 (under the Revolutionary Government).

The designation gobernadorcillo was changed to capitan municipal under the Maura Law of May, 1893 which was implemented in the Philippines starting the year 1895. Thus Crispulo Aguinaldo was the last gobernadorcillo, and his younger brother, Emilio, was the first capitan municipal of Cavite el Viejo.

In the souvenir magazine "The 3rd Glorious Centerary of Kawit, Cavite, 1624-1964," the following were also mentioned as having been former capitanes municipal of Cavite el Viejo: Angel Janigorge, Julian Legaspi, and Benigno Santi. It is possible that they had been appointed capitan municipal in an acting capacity after the death of Candido Tria Tirona on November 10, 1896 until Aguinaldo’s return from Hong Kong and the proclamation of the Philippine independence on June 12, 1898.

A Spanish document in the National Archives also contains the following list of "Cabezas de Barangay of Cavite el Viejo, 1778-1779":

A. First Class (Native): (1) Juan Manuel; (2) Miguel de Sta. Rita; (3) Julian de los Reyes; (4) Tomas Perez; (5) Francisco Ronquillo; (6) Manuel de Jesus; (7) Alejandro Rodriguez; (8) Domingo Alonzo; (9) Joseph Lorenzo; (10) Juan Pablo Malysay; (11) Pedro Arquiza.

B. Second Class (Mestizo): (1) Antonio Quiamzon; (2) Lorenzo Patricio; (3) Fransisco Medina; and (4) Luis Bautista.


MUNICIPAL PRESIDENTS (American Regime): (1) Justo Kalagayan; (2) Canuto Encarnacion; (3) Manuel Victa; (4) Aurelio Santonil; (5) Gabino Toledo; (6) Mateo Red; (7) Potenciano Resurreccion (father of incumbent Mayor Ramon B. Resurreccion); (8) Fransisco Ramos; (9) Marcelino Vales; (10) Segundo Caimol; and (11) Agapito Quiamzon.

MUNICIPAL MAYORS (under the Commonwealth and Third and Fourth Republics): (1) Epifanio Victa; (2) German Bay; (3) Florentino A. Bautista, Jr., and (4) Ramon B. Resurreccion, 1979

Source: Saulo & de Ocampo. History of Cavite


Like the town of Amadeo, the municipality of Dasmariñas has an ambivalent history. Originally it was part of Imus until the year 1868, when it was converted into an independent municipality and named Perez-Dasmariñas. Then after nearly 37 years of independent existence Dasmariñas was reverted of Imus, remaining a barrio of the latter until it regained its independence after 12 years in 1917.

Historically, Dasmariñas had played an important role as gateway to the Magdalo revolutionary capital of Imus. It was in the strategic Pasong Santol, in barrio Salitran Dasmariñas, where General Emilio Aguinaldo and later his elder brother General Crispulo Agunaldo fought off Spanish General Jose Lachamber’s troops in seesaw battle from March 7 to 24, 1897, when the Spaniards captured it "over the dead body" of the elder Aguinaldo. With the capture of this Dasmariñas salient, the fall of Imus to the Spaniards was a foregone conclusion.

The first settlers to arrive in this former barrio of Imus in 1862 included the families of Gil Tirona, Vicente Guevarra, Eleuterio Ceda and Eustaquio Palume. The influx of settlers must have been so heavy that in few years they petitioned higher authorities for the conversion of the barrio into a separate municipality. When the new town called Perez-Dasmariñas was inaugurated in 1868 it had already its own Catholic parish established the year before by Augustinian Recollect fathers.

The history of Dasmariñas is inextricably linked with the life of one of its outstanding sons, Placido Campos. Kapitang Idong, as he was popularly called, was the son of Valeriano Campos (Kapitan Vale), of Talaba, Bacoor, and Julia Nave, a native of Bayang Luma, Imus. He was the fifth in a family of nine children. Campos was the capitan municipal of Perez-Dasmariñas when the Revolution broke out in August 1896. With the help of his secretary, Francisco Barzage, Campos and his volunteers attacked the Catholics convent and the Spanish garrison, but the Spaniards were able to escape.

The revolutionist pursued the fleeing Spaniards, overtaking them n barrio Sampaloc. In the ensuing skirmish a Spanish sergeant and a priest were killed while the rest were captured.

About seven months later, specifically on February 25, 1897, the Spaniards came back with a vengeance. The massive counter-offensive launched by Spanish General Lachambre rolled back Kapitan Idong and his army of voluntarios. With the exemption of the Church all buildings fought valiantly but no avail. About half of the town’s population of 20,000 perished in battle.

During the Philippined-American War (1899-1901) Kapitan Idong again took up arms on the side of General Aguinaldo and his Revolutionary Government. It was a losing fight from the very beginning. The Americans, superior in men and material, defeated the ill-equipped Filipinos after two years of fighting. Kapitan Idong and his nephew, Guillermo Campos, were captured and imprisoned at the Provost Political Prison on Posting Street, Intramuros, Manila, where they were kept for six months. Kapitan Idong returned to his family in Dasmariñas after his release.

In October 1901 the Americans established the civil government. In the first election held in Perez Dasmariñas Placido Barzaga, was appointed treasurer. The census of 1903, however, showed a tremendous decrease in the population of the towns of Cavite after the revolution of Perez Dasmariñas, for instance, went down from 12,000 to 3,500. Consequently, in 1901 a law was passed reducing the existing 22 municipalities of Cavite to nine. The law took effect in 1905.

In 1917, the situation having long returned to normal, during the administration of Governor-General Francis Burton Harrison, 1913-1921, Perez Dasmariñas was again made an independent municipality. The provincial governor of Cavite, Antero S. Soriano, convened the local leaders including Placido Campos, Francisco Barzaga, and Felipe Tirona, and agreed to delete the word ‘Perez" but retained "Dasmariñas" as the new name of the town. For the second time Placido Campos headed the re-christened town of Dasmariñas, this time in his capacity as the first municipal president under the American regime."

The complete name of barrio Burol is Pansol-Burol. Pansol is a Tagalog word meaning aqueduct, while Burol, also a native word, means mound. Burol is one of the oldest barrios of Dasmirañas as evidenced by the ruins of old sugar mills and stone buildings that may still be found in some parts of the barrio. Another barrio is Langkaan. Its name was derived from Langka, meaning jackfruit. Hence Langkaan means a place abounding in jackfruits. This barrio has many sitios.

The barrio Paliparan was a grassy land with no trees growing on its wide area, providing an excellent place for flying kites during summer. In fact, this was what the place used to be – a paliparan – meaning an airfield for flying kites. During the Spanish regime the Spaniards used to go to this place during weekends to fly kites of different designs and colors. On the other hand, the next barrio, Sabang, got its name from the diversion of the booklet separating it from barrio Malagasang, Imus. The flow of the stream was diverted to irrigate rice fields in the area, and this branching out of the booklet or intersection is called sabang in Tagalog. The barrio was established in 1916.

In the southeastern part of Dasmariñas is barrio Salawag, a Tagalog word meaning studs, to which nipa or cogon is attached for roofing. This place abounds in bamboo’s, which are split into studs for roofing. Another barrio of Dasmariñas called Salitran became famous in history because it was in a strategic pass in this place called Pasong Santol where Filipinos and Spaniards fought what may be considered the bloodiest battle during the Revolution. It was here where Filipino volunteers under General Crispulo Aguinaldo held Lachambre’s forces at bay until the defenders were wiped out almost t the last man. Crispulo Aguinaldo himself was the No. 1 casualty.


Except for lack of dates of the terms of the gobernadorcillos (also popularly referred to as captain) during the Spanish regime, the list of town heads of Dasmariñas is complete from its founding to the present. This speaks well of the sense of history of the municipal officials of Dasmariñas. The list follows in full:

GOBERNADORCILLOS FROM 1895: (1) Juan Ramirez (date of incumbency unknown); (2) Adriano Llano, (3) Eduardo Bautista, (4) Anastacio Paulme, (5) Valeriano Campos, (6) Eugenio Ambalada, (7) Ligario Malihan, (8) Leon Mangubat, (9) Lino Alcantara, (10) Fausto Bautista, and (11) Gregorio Bautista.

CAPITAN MUNICIPAL : Placido Campos, 1895-1896

MUNICIPAL PRESIDENT : Francisco Barzaga, 1900 (under the Military Government).

MUNICIPAL MAYORS : (1) Teodorico Sarosario, 1935-1940; (2) Felicisimo Carungcong, 1941-1945; (3) Maximo de la Torre, 1946 (appointed); (4) Gaudencio Geda, 1946, ditto; (5) Fermin de la Cruz, 1947, ditto; (6) Arturo Carungcong, 1948-1950; (7) Emiliano dela Cruz, 1951-1955; (8) Tomas Hembrador, 1956-1963; (9) Remigio Carungcong, 1964-1971; (10) Narciso M. Guevarra, 1972 to his death on December 17, 1982; (11) Recto M. Cantimbuhan, December 1982 (12) Elpidio Barsaga 1986 (13) Recto Cantimbuhan 1988 – 1995 (14) Elpidio Barzaga (1995 – present).

source: Saulo & de Ocampo: Cavite History


Originally, a barrio called Latag (a Tagalog word meaning plain), Carmona was just a part of the big town of Silang. This is not surprising because in the early part of the Spanish regime Silang included what today are known as the municipalities of Indang ; San Francisco de Malabon ( now General Trias), and Maragundon. Moreover, Alfonso, Amadeo, and Mendez were mere sitios of Indang ; Sta. Cruz de Malabon(now Tanza) was a part of San Francisco de Malabon or Malabon Grande ; and Magallanes andTernate were barrios of Maragundon. Furthermore, Maragundon itself had been a part of the Corregimiento of Mariveles on the opposite side of Manila Bay.

Mainly because of the great distance to the mother town, the principales and incumbent cabeza de barangay of Latag petitioned for its seperation and conversion into a municipality on February 20 1857. The new town was called Carmona, after a town of the same name in the Spanish province of Siville.

Two years after securing the independence of Carmona, the principales requested the Governor of Cavite for the reversal of the Canon on communal lands after constructing their own public buildings and irrigation works. The petition of the principales was dated November 15,1759. But in 1872, the communal lands were sold at public auction, which was opposed two years later by Don Gaspar Espiritu in a communication to the Superior Civil Governor.

An event of great significant to the people of Carmona was the strong typhoon of October 25, 1874, which wrought considerable damage to the public works and private property. Seven years later, on July 6, 1881, the principales of Carmona requested the rectification of the town’s boundaries. .

Moreover, on January 22, 1864, the incumbent gobernadorcillo and principales of Carmona petitioned higher authorities for the abolition of the repartimiento of the communal lands triennially.

Source: Saulo & de Ocampo: Cavite History

Friday, May 23, 2008


Instructor - History
Cavite State University- DSAC




Yndang is an upland town located at the center of the upland region.

Early settlements in this region date back to the Old Stone Age. Many articles made by the townsfolk were discovered in the more ancient upland sites of Tagaytay and Indang consisting mainly of tools made of hard stone.

It was in 1655 when Indang was formally made a town separated from Mendez and Alfonso with the first Gobernadorcillo, Juan Dimabiling. A part of Silang for about 70 years, the municipality of Indang was organized in 1655 with a prominent native, Juan Dimabiling, as the first gobernadorcillo. The distance between the barrio of Indang and the poblacion of Silang caused the residents of the former great difficulty in transacting officials business and attending religious services. This led the people of Indang to petition higher authorities for the conversion of the barrio into a separate municipality. The petition was granted, and Indang became full-fledged town in 1655(Saulo & De Ocampo, 1985).

The Municipal Hall of Indang, Cavite

How Indang Got its Name

The name “ Indang” was derived from indang or inrang, a tree which abounded in that locality in the early days. ‘Inrang’, according to Medina ( 1996), as cited by Anciano (2007) was derived from a plant, ‘hernandia ovigera’ and Merill (1906) ‘artocarpus ovatus’ and ‘ artocarpus cuminiaga’, or widely known in other provinces as “ anobing” . Indang’s revolutionary name of Walang Tinag (Immovable) was part of the revolutionists’ objective to wipe out all vestiges of the country’s colonial past. The town of Indang played a crucial role in the Philippine Revolution. It was in barrio Limbon, Indang, where Andres Bonifacio, defeated in the Tejeros Convention, arrested and prevented from pursuing his counter-revolutionary plan to set up a separate government and army. He and his follower were brought back to Naik, tried by a military court, finally convicted of sedition and treason against the Revolutionary Government headed by General Emilio Aguinaldo.

Although a poor municipality in terms of annual income, Indang compares favorably with many towns in the Philippines in the number of outstanding revolutionary figures.

Distinguished Sons of Indang
  1. Severino de las Alas, member of Aguinaldo’s revolutionary cabinet
  2. Raymundo Jeciel, who was with Aguinaldo during his retreat to Northern Luzon and former governor of Cavite
  3. General Ambrosio Mojica, politico-military governor of the First Philippine Republic in Samar and Leyte
  4. Hugo Ilagan
  5. and Jose Coronel, both delegates to the Revolutionary Congress in Tarlac, Tarlac.
Socio-Economic Features

In the 1880s, Indang was the center of trade in upland Cavite since other three towns like Amadeo, Bailen and Mendez as well as one lowland town ( Dasmarinas) did not have markets. During this time, tiangues were held every Monday in Silang, Thursday in Naic, Saturday in Indang, and Sunday in Maragondon. Fish vendors from the coastal towns sold their sea products and other wares on Saturdays in Indang (Medina, 1994). Indang was also known for coffee, black pepper, abaca, Sinamay Indang, cacao, kapok, kalamay Indang and sukang irok. Sinamay Indang was woven and served as a well-known commercial product for Manila markets during the 19th century.

Old folks produce and sell kalamay Indang
at the town plaza as their source of income.


Indang has churches and chapels run by three religious denominations: the Catholic St. Gregory Church, the Protestant Church, and the Iglesia ni Cristo. Moreover, it was learned from the United Church of Christ in the Philippines that it maintains the Indang Evangelical Church and the Kayquit Evangelical Church.

St. Gregory Parish Church fronting the Town Plaza.

Yoshiaki Muto As A Resident Of Indang, Cavite

Yoshiaki Muto was born on November 23, 1891 in Fukushima-ken, Japan. He first landed on Philippine soil accidentally when he and his brother (name unknown) got stranded in Manila aboard a ship sailing for the United States. His original plan was to go to the States to study, but instead of heading to America, the money he had for his studies was used in the purchase of goods for a small business.

Yoshiaki Muto of Indang, Cavite

When he decided to stay long in the Philippines, he put up a bazaar in Libertad, Pasay City where he met his first wife (name unknown) who died in giving birth to his first daughter named Bonifacia Muto. After sometime, he met Felicidad de Borja Obo, a native of Barrio Cuyab, San Pedro, Laguna, whom he had seven children. Figure 5 shows the photo of Felicidad Obo Muto.

Felicidad Obo-Muto

Ka Muto got married with Felicidad on May 25, 1925 in Sta. Rosa, Laguna. His children were Col. Juanito de Borja, Fidela de Borja, Avelina Muto, Roberto Muto, Victor Muto, Rosita Muto, and Ligaya Muto. De Borja was taken from the surname of Felicidad’s mother. Figure 6 shows the children of Ka Muto during the wake of Bonifacia, his first daughter.

The Muto Children - Standing from left to right:
Col. Juanito de Borja, Victor Muto, and Roberto Muto. Seated
are Rosita Muto, Ligaya Muto, Avelina Muto and Fidela de Borja.

While their business was starting to grow, they decided to put up another business in Binan, Laguna where they had a photo studio called “ Japanese Studio”. After Binan, they moved to Alaminos, Laguna. Then by the late 30s, they transferred again to Indang, Cavite where his first two children were born- Victor and Rosita. They put up various business establishments like the “Japanese Studio”, a bazaar, and a small restaurant. They rented the house of Juana Diokno, the daughter-in-law of Don Severino de las Alas along Mabini Street corner San Miguel Street in Indang, Cavite before the invasion of the Japanese Imperial Army.

The former residence and business location of the Muto family

Yoshiaki Muto as a Family Man

As a father and a family man, Ka Muto was a good provider to his family. He was a disciplinarian and hardworking. He was a loving husband and father to his children. He was kind and generous to his neighbors.

Yoshiaki Muto as a Photographer and a Businessman

Ka Muto became famous in Indang as a photographer because his styles, techniques and chemicals used in photography are advanced during his time. His cliché whenever he takes pictures of his customers goes like this: “ Tingin sa barabas ( Look at my mustache). According to the respondents, he was such a hardworking person who would travel round Cavite on foot with his tripod and camera. Due to the fact that he had his own photo studio, he had been allegedly successful in mapping out the province of Cavite that led to a faster mobility of the Japanese Imperial Army because they are already familiar of the place with the help of Ka Muto. That he was a colonel in the Japanese Army was a common knowledge among the folks of Indang. In 1939, Ka Muto was captured by the officials of Indang for questioning of his being a Japanese, but was later released. Upon his release, he headed back to San Pedro, Laguna where he left his children. He and his wife decided to settle down in Tondo, Manila.

Yoshiaki Muto as a Clergyman

Ka Muto was baptized and became an active member of the Iglesia ni Cristo in September 1937. He initiated the purchase of a house and lot which served as the first chapel of the Iglesia ni Cristo in Indang, Cavite. The money he used to buy the house and lot came from the savings of Felicidad, his wife, with the amount of two hundred pesos. His life story was once issued in the 1958 Pasugo Magazine, showing his contributions to the Iglesia ni Cristo. He was once a deacon of the Iglesia ni Cristo.

His being a member of the Iglesia ni Cristo was a great help to all his churchmates during the Japanese occupation. As quoted by Meimban (1995) :

“The war was not without its pleasant times for the church, however. The problem of mobility of the ministers was resolved, partly, with the help of a pre-war converted Japanese national, Brother Yoshiaki Muto, Of Fukushima-ken, Japan. It is not easy to measure in words the critical role Played by Brother Muto. But the assistance he extended to the church, through his influence upon his countrymen can easily be described. He was responsible for the ministers’ passes that enabled them to pass through the Japanese sentries without being frisked or questioned by the guards. The passes, in Muto’s own calligraphy, bore the following words:“ Watashi-wa shenshi Kiokay no Cristo.” ( I am a teacher of the Church of Christ.)

Yoshiaki Muto as a Civilian Officer of the Japanese Imperial Army

Ka Muto served as an interpreter for General Masaharo Homma, as a judge in the Mesiec in Tondo, Manila wherein he was able to save many Filipinos’ lives from the atrocities brought about by his fellow Japanese. He was the person in the movie, “Camerino”, who released the Filipino prisoners of the Japanese Imperial Army in Cavite. He was the Japanese adviser to the Governor of Cavite during the time of Dominador Camerino.

In 1945, at the age of 54, Yoshiaki Muto went back to Japan. According to Victor Muto (2007) twelve years later, Ka Muto came back to the Philippines not because of his family but to be with the Iglesia ni Cristo. He even reiterated that he was not able to serve the church for twelve years.

Ka Muto at the age of 66

Ka Muto came back to the Philippines in 1957, but died five years later at the age of 71. He was given the honor to have his wake in the Iglesia ni Cristo chapel, a rare honor given to a church member.

  1. The history of Indang, specifically during the Japanese occupation, has yet to be studied further, for now, it has limited well-documented historical facts.
  2. A need to conduct further studies on Yoshiaki Muto’s coming to Indang, Cavite is felt to answer the question: “ Did Muto come here by accident, by choice, or by order of the Japanese Imperial Army?”
  3. A further study is needed in response to the urgent call for the unsung stories of Indang, Cavite during the Japanese Period.
  4. Many leading characters who played important roles during the Japanese occupation are continuously making their exit from life, hence, a study should be conducted the soonest time.
  5. There are many fallacies about Ka Muto in Indang, Cavite . He was always mistaken to be the Colonel, but it was his eldest son, Col. Juanito de Borja who was once an officer of the Philippine Constabulary.

Additional Photo:

The researcher and Mr. Victor Muto during the interview


De Ocampo, Esteban A. and Alfredo Saulo. ( 1985). History of Cavite: The Mother Ground of the Philippine Revolution, Independence, Flag, and National Anthem. Trece Martirez City: Provincial Government of Cavite.

Medina, Isagani R. ( 1994). Cavite Before the Revolution ( 1571- 1896). UP Diliman: CSSP Publications.

Obar, Meimban A. ( 1995). The Iglesia ni Cristo: The History of the Church Founded by Christ. Quezon City: Iglesia ni Cristo ( unpublished material)

Panganiban, Natalia d. and Silverio Baltasar. ( 1999). Indang and her Revolutionary Heroes. Quezon City: Indang Municipal Historical Committee.

Muto, Victor. “ The Life of Ka Muto”, (October 2007).

Guevarra, Camilo Jr. “ The People of Indang and Ka Muto”. ( July 2007).

Erni, Pablo V. “ Japanese Occupation” ( August 2007).

Papa, Antonio G. “ Ka Muto as an Iglesia ni Cristo”. ( July 2007).

Taal, Luisa M. “ Life in Kayquit during the Japanese Occupation. ( August 2007).

Romen, Ceferino. “ Life in Kaytambog”. ( August 2007)


John Foreman
The Philippine Islands
Second Edition 1899 P. 451-458

Paliwanag ng Nagsasaliksik

Si John Foreman ay isang Ingles na Fellow ng prestihiyosong Royal Geographic Society ng Inglatera. Nanirahan ng maraming taon sa Pilipinas at inobserbahan ang politika at kultura sa panahon ng pananakop ng Espanya sa ating bansa. Ang kaniyang pag-aaral sa lipunang Filipino sa panahon ng kaniyang pag-aaral ay nagbunga sa pagkakalimbag ng aklat na The Philippine Islands na lumabas ng ilang ulit sa iba’t ibang edisyon.

Sinipi ng nagsasaliksik ang isang bahagi ng aklat ni John Foreman ukol sa kaniyang ginawang pagdalaw sa lalawigan ng Cavite, sa panahon bago maganap ang Himagsikang Pilipino ng 1896. Ang paglalakbay ay nagmula sa lalawigan ng Batangas, patungo sa Maragondon at paikot sa mga bayan ng lalawigan. Sa salaysay na ito ay mahahayag ang matandang sistema ng mga kalsada sa lalawigan at ang mga kaugalian sa mga bayan na kaniyang nadalaw sa lalawigan. Hindi matiyak ng nagsasaliksik ang taon, subalit mababakas na ang paglalakbay ay ginawa sa mga huling araw ng Enero at mga unang araw Pebrero (inabutan siya ng Piyesta sa Silang, Cavite).

Mahalaga ang salaysay na ito ni Foreman, upang mabalikan natin ng tanaw ang lalawigan mula sa mata ng isang dayuha na naging bisita ng ating mga ninuno.


A local steamer left me at Balayan on her way to Manila. I went out to see a sugar factory belonging to a half-caste. The cane-mill was driven by water-power, and a vacuum pan was used to make crystal grain sugar. The owner, however, was not highly satisfied with the financial results. Balayan is a well-built town, with several good houses of stone, wood and iron roofs. Up to the end of last century it had been three times burnt by Mussulmans. Some splendid ponies are to be seen here, and they are cheaper than in Lipa. I rode several, and had a beautiful little animal lent me to go to Tuy. There I changed for a miserable nag, and went over some low ranges of mountains to Nasugbu. It was a very pretty ride. Nasugbu is a wretched place, but the half-caste parish priest and his sisters made me welcome. They were all clever musicians, and after my ride with the padre, we had a concert.

The greater part of the cultivated land around Nasugbu and for several miles to the south, belongs to a rich Manila native, Pedro Rojas, whose name figured very prominently years later in the rebellion of 1896.

It being the wet season, the mountain path leading north from Nasugbu was not passable, so I started in a canoe for Maragondon. Off Punta del Fuego a storm came on, and we were obliged to take refuge in a creek, protected by rocks, against which the surging billows lashed with fury, whilst it poured with rain. I was wet through. Fortunately we found a fisherman's hut, where I changed my clothes, and in a couple of hours we put to sea again. It was still rough; my legs were bathed with sea-water. The monsoon was on the eve of changing, and a N.E. breeze was opposing us, so it was midnight before we reached the mouth of the Maragondon river. I had a letter to a half-caste resident, and there I settled for the night. The next day I rode out to visit a sugar estate. It was a venturesome journey; our ponies were up to their knees in mud, but the ride was pretty. Gorgeous clusters of bamboo were gracefully reclining over us on one side, forming a bower, and there was a precipice down to the river on the other slope. We were going uphill, to the mountain, when my pony lost his footing on the slippery rise; he slid back, and landed me in a pool of mud, out of which I scrambled, leaving him to manage for himself.

We rode over the estate, and returned by another route, which led us to the ravine where the mill-stream flowed. The water, bounding over the rocks in the gorge, was the only sound we heard besides the screeching of the birds on the tall trees. It was a lovely retreat; I should have liked to have lunched there, but we had nothing with us, as we (the young planter and I) were invited to the convent for 12 o'clock. We sent a man back by the ridge leading our ponies, whilst we stepped over to the other side through the water and followed the bank until we came to the unobstructed river. There we had a bamboo raft made for us, and on it we floated down stream, towards the town, continuing the short distance thence on foot.

We lunched with the native priest, who, that afternoon, had to go up to the mountain to confer his blessing on an European cattle-power mill newly erected. I accepted his invitation to accompany him. We rode out about 4 o'clock on very quiet strong ponies, with a servant in front of us to remove any obstacles. At 5 o'clock we were there, when a rough-looking native quietly approached the father, kissed his hand, and begged permission to come down with his companions. They were a brigand party-it was the best policy to say " Yes," so in a quarter of an hour six ruffians kept us company. They said they had seen us turn off the high road into the mountain path, and could have sent a bullet into us very easily, but they superstitiously respected the sacerdotal habit; they were hungry too, and wished to eat, so we supplied them with rice, fish, betel-nut, etc.

After the meal they showed us their weapons at our request. One man armed with an ancient pistol said he had the anting-anting,-that is to say, he was proof against harm. The priest said he was the same, and as he talked, he quietly loaded the pistol, putting the bullet first and the powder afterwards. The man did not perceive the trick. Then the priest stuck up a white handkerchief on a bough, and bid the brigand hit it. The bandit smiled disdainfully and fired-the smoke puffed out, and the bullet fell at his feet as he lowered the weapon.

"Ah!" cried the priest, "you're helpless with him who has the anting-anting," and the brigand turned away from the holy man, dumbfounded.


After passing the next day in and around Maragondon, I went on to Naig. The road is pretty in the wet season on account of the fine lawn-like fields of green rice on either side. Around Naig most of the land belonged to the Dominican Corporation, whose estate-house was an imposing building, well constructed, with a large high-walled enclosure in front, occupying all one side of the public square. The river runs to the north of the town, and is crossed by a massive singlearched bridge. It is never very safe travelling about here, and all the rest of the journey up to Cavite is dangerous, owing to the bands of outlaws constantly infesting this locality. The road from Naig to Santa Cruz de Malabon (Tanza it is called by the natives) was simply a mud trail, and my guide advised me to turn of on to the sea-shore. It was very heavy work for our ponies, who could not get a good footing. On our left was the sea, and in the far distance we could descry Corregidor Island and the peaks of the Mariveles Cordillera; to our right was mostly barren land overgrown with heather. There was nothing attractive in this run, and we stopped only once to quench our thirst with cocoa-nut milk. When one is within half-an-hour of Santa Cruz, some rocks jut out into the sea very awkwardly, obliging the rider to take a foot bath at high tide, but they are passed in five minutes.

Santa Cruz de Malabon is a neat little place. The square and the native shops are tidy, and there are a few fairly well-to-do natives living here. The chief produce is rice. The arable land, upon which the town depends, belonged to a religious corporation. There are several water-power rice-husking mills in the locality. I stayed at the house of an ex-petty-governor, who told me that a friend of his was excavating at the river-side, preparatory to the erection of a perpetual-motion rice-mill. His friend was anxious for me to see the model and have my opinion on it, so I went round to the shed where it was set up.

A water-wheel was to be placed with the shaft at land level. This wheel was to be put in motion by a stream of water flowing from a reservoir. The motion of the water-wheel would be communicated to two wheels, one at each end of the same shaft. Over these wheels a series of buckets were to revolve. These buckets were to bring up water from the river, and empty themselves into a canal leading to the reservoir, to replace the water which had fed the driving-wheel. Hence, provided the river did not dry up, the machine was expected to go on perpetually and transmit its motive power to a rice-husking mill. I explained to him, as far as I knew, the mechanical defects in the contrivance, but he had money to spend, and preferred to find out the errors of his theories by experience.

The country around is a vast plain, lying low, and just suited for rice-growing. It is generally refreshing to the traveller to see fields of green rice, but here its cultivation is so extensive that it becomes monotonous.


My host's son procured ponies for me, and accompanied me to Indan. We passed the civil guard outpost of Quintana. (kasaluyang lugar ng Kapitolyo ng Cavite-anciano) There was a great sameness in the immense rice fields all around, until two miles journey further on when we entered a horsepath leading through a coffee plantation to the high road near Indan. We were in the heart of the Cavite coffee district. There was nothing to see in Indan town. The headmen in the Town Hall were discussing coffee prices, and thought I had come to buy that product, or offer advances against the coming crop.


We rode on to Silan. On leaving Indan, and about one-third of the way to Silan, there were so many rises and falls in the road that I suppose no one ever attempted the journey in a vehicle, but the route is very good for riding. The last two-thirds of the road are better still, and we went at a fast trot all the way to Silan. There was nothing but coffee plantations, or waste land, or fields out of tilth to be seen on the way. Two miles of the road this side of Silan were splendid. I was in the heart of that region which, in 1896, became the centre of the Tagilog rebellion.

Silan stands high up, and it was cold and damp. For the first time, in this Colony, I really felt chilly. There was some excitement about coffee prices. There had been a market rise in Manila, and several brokers had come to adjust bargains for the next deliveries. I was mistaken for one of these persons. Silan is a large town, with a few fairly good houses, a large church and convent, a very hospitable priest, and a civil guard station. The townspeople happened to be celebrating their annual fete. Here and there were groups of fighting-cock owners and sportsmen. On one side of the church there was a big fair. At night the principal streets were illuminated by every householder hanging out paper lanterns of varied colours. The windows were wide open-the neighbours were paying mutual visits —wayfarers from afar were welcome everywhere. In each dwelling a table was spread with confectionery, sweetmeats, drinks and buyo. I had alighted at the Town Hall, but was at once kindly invited by a headman to his house. As I passed along with my host we were repeatedly called upon by the townfolks to "honour their houses." Sometimes we thanked the inviter and passed on, but at three or four places we entered and accepted sweets, cigars, and betel-nut as a matter of compliment. Nowhere had I witnessed such a display of disinterested hospitality. In the square a temporary theatre had been erected, before which a good-humoured mob stood gazing with delight at the " Moro Moro" performance. All was gaiety-prince after prince was being slain-the piratical tyrant was eating the dust-the Christian cavaliers were winning their laurels.[1]


The next day we rode on from Silan with the same ponies through Carmona to Vinan-an uneventful journey by beaten paths through fields, only enlivened by a magnificent bird's-eye view of the Laguna de Bay when we were near to Carmona. From Carmona, sugar estates begin again, and from the high road we turned off several times to see the cane-crushing at the several steam and cattle-power mills. We were glad to arrive at Virian on the lake shore to rest our ponies. We were now in a comparatively rich town, inhabited by a great many Chinese half-castes. There is quite a number of good stone and wooden houses, some with tiles and others with iron roofs. The river runs through the centre of the town, and near its left bank stands the old church which was ruined by the earthquake of 1880 The lands around were the property of a religious corporation, the planters being tenants who complained bitterly of the treatment they received from the landlords' agent. There are several steam cane-mills in the neighbourhood, and clayed sugar is the chief article of trade.

We returned to Carmona and I went to the civil guard station to ask for an armed escort over the mountains to Perez Dasmariinas. The officer at once furnished me with a couple of native guards to protect me on the journey. We started in the cool of the afternoon, through the mountain paths, up hill and down dale all the way. The dells were very muddy, but we got through without mishap. It was a very agreeable ride, sometimes between tall trees in the thick of the forest, then along a path leading through a grove of guava bushes about ten feet high.


Night came on, but there was moonlight sufficient for us to see the way. It was deliciously cool, and the cayinin[2] fires in the mountain made the scene poetic. In about three hours we came to an outpost of the civil guard. Here we changed escort, and took the opportunity of having our supper. The native guard in charge was kind enough to give my Santa Cruz companion and my servant Nicomedis some rice, and whilst the last two potatoes of my provisions were being boiled, we turned out a can of beef. There was no hurry; the ponies would have to rest somewhere, and they might as well do so here, so we took out their bits and slacked their saddle-girths whilst we supped. It was not a sumptuous meal, and I fear an epicurean would be quite melancholy in these parts. In half-an-hour after leaving this place, we were on the high road from Silan to Perez Dasmarifnas, and then a long dreary hour's ride brought us to the latter town. It was quite dark, and we were all tired. The guards who escorted us went to their quarters, and at 11 o'clock we turned in at the Town Hall, where everybody was asleep, but the Aguacil stirred about after a while and brought me a large mat and pillows to sleep on the floor. In the early morn there was a great commotion. I was awakened by loud voices and stamping of feet over the loose floor planks. The night before, a party of brigands had committed some atrocity close by, and the cuadrillero guards were being called out to assist the civil guard in giving them chase. They were buckling on their bohie-knives and clicking the hammers of their archaic muskets. Hearing the tramp of ponies' hoofs below, I went down in my sleeping suit to see that our mounts were not appropriated amidst the bustle.

Perez Dasmarinas is a large quiet town, with a good church and convent, and here and there a house in the square with the usual group of huts. Being up so early we started betimes for Imus, famous as a brigand centre. The road was pretty, with large trees along on both sides, amongst them being hundreds of mango trees, which bring a regular income to the owners. The only novelty which we encountered on the road was a bamboo and nipa bungalow moving towards us, with some hundred naked legs dangling beneath it. It was going to take up new quarters close by its old resting-place, and was being removed by bayanin (labour given gratis to a neighbour).


From Imus we went on to Cavite Viejo, a dirty fishing town, strewn with nets, canoes, sails, bamboos, etc., on the seaside. There were a few rows of rough-and-tumble shops, and in the middle of this uninteresting group is the large church and convent. The only amusement here was to listen to the townsfolk disputing amongst themselves in broken-Spanish, a mongrel jargon invented by the Cavite coast natives-a philological treat.

Passing through Novaleta and Rosario we were again in Santa Cruz de Malabon. The ponies were very fatigued, but when they recognized their home they required no urging to arrive at a hard trot at the finish of the sixty-mile journey.

From Santa Cruz I took a carromata to Cavite, where the Arsenal is established. Cavite is a fortified town, with streets of houses built of brick, stone, &c., as in Manila.[3] It has its theatre, cafes, hotels, jetty, sea-wall, etc., but is not considered healthy. Being then the chief Government Naval Station, there was a large European floating population. Here, and especially in San Roque, fifteen minutes' drive from Cavite, a very amusing broken-Spanish is spoken by the natives. There was a bi-daily steamboat service between the capital and Cavite, the run being about 61 miles, so I embarked on the morning boat at 7.30, and in one hour was again in Manila-the so-called " Pearl of the Orient," or the " Venice of the Far East."

[1] The burthen of a native play in the provinces is almost invariably founded on the contests between the Mussulmans of the South, and the Christian natives under Spanish dominion. The Spaniards, in attaching the denomination of JVo'ros to the Moslems of Sulu, associated them in name with the Mussulman Moors who held sway over a large part of Hispania for over seven centuries (711-1192). A " Moro Mforo " performance is usually a drama-occasionally a melo-drama-in which the native actors, clad in all the glittering finery of Moslem nobility and Christian chivalry, assemble in battle array before the Moslem princesses, to settle their disputes under the combined inspirations of love and religious persuasion. The princesses, one after the other, pining under the dictates of the heart in defiance of their creed, leave their fate to be sealed by the outcome of deadly combat between the contending factions. Armed to the teeth, the cavaliers of the respective parties march to and fro, haranguing each other in monotonous tones. After a longwinded, wearisome challenge, they brandish their weapons and meet in a series of single combats which merge in a general melee as the princes are vanquished and the hand of the disputed enchantress is won. The dialogue is in the idiom of the district where the performance is given, and the whole play (lasting from four to six nights) is brief compared with Chinese melo-drama, which often extends to a month of nights. Judged from the standard of European histrionism, the plot is weak from the sameness and repetition of the theme. The declamation is unnatural, and void of vigour and emphasis. The same tone is maintained from beginning to end, whether it be in expression of expostulatory defiance, love, joy, or despair. But the masses are intensely amused, thus the full object is achieved. They seem to never tire of gazing at the situations created, and applauding vociferously the feigned defeat of their traditional arch-foes.

[2] Cayinin (Tagaog dialect), a land clearance made by firing the undergrowth

[3] Up to the beginning of the 17th century, the houses in Cavite were built of wood with nipa palm roofing. At that period a great fire occurred which consumed three-fourths of the buildings, including the Royal Granaries and much cargo which was awaiting shipment to Mexico. The town and Arsenal were afterwards re-constructed with more solid materials-stone, bricks, etc., and tile roofs being used.